In the vast panorama of sacred music in Sardinia, the Cuncordu de Orosei undoubtedly occupies a prominent position, also thanks to the presence of vocal peculiarities in its repertory. The group was formed in 1978 and currently consists of Martino Corimbi,cronta; Giovanni Rosu, voche: Franco Sannai, bassu and Paolo Burrai, mesuvoche, the youngest member of the group.

The Cuncordu has taken part in many traditional singing festivals, in numerous Italian and European cities, invariably be favourably received both by the critics and the public. Amongst our main achievements, I would like to mention the Festival de Musique Sacrée in Paris and also Angouleme, Rennes, Briançon, Toulouse, Marseilles, Aix en Provence, Tarbes, Rouen, Tours, Solesmes, Nantes, Vienna, Fundao and Prague just to mention the more recent; and then Munich, Frankfurt, Turin, Venice, Florence, Amsterdam, Stockholm and Antwerp, in occasion of important appointments linked to traditional singing.

1994 marked the recordings made for the NOTA Editions of Udine, in the Church of S.Pietro in Galtelli, which led to the production of a CD containing 11 songs from the sacred repertory of Orosei presented by Pietro Sassu and Renato Morelli. I wrote the notes in the explanatory booklet, with Giuseppe Mercurio’s linguistic supervision. The turning point, from an artistic point of view, came in 1997, when the German producer Stefan Winter inserted the Cuncordu in his collection, including artists of international repute such as Uri Caine, Ernst Reijseger, Alan Purves, D. Douglas, Paul Motian Trio, and Gary Thomas. The label Winter&Winter subsequently published a double CD, for which, together with Paolo Mercurio, I wrote an explanatory booklet translated into 7 languages (including Japanese)- consisting of more than 100 pages. This CD contains the sacred and “a tenore” traditional repertory of Orosei.

Amongst works beyond the merely traditional, for which the Cuncordu de Orosei is appreciated and considered throughout the world, I would like to recall the experiment carried out in 1997 on the occasion of the “ Spaziomusica” Festival in Cagliari, during which important musicians such as Vittorio Montis, Riccardo Dapelo and Andrea Saba ventured on an accurate acoustic and electro acoustic foray into three “a tenore” and “a cuncordu” songs, experimented live with an extraordinary concert in the chapel of San Domenico. Mention should also be made of the remarkable participation of the Cuncordu de Orosei to the CD “Voyage en Sardaigne” published by the “Manifesto” and edited by the musician Enzo Favata, from Alghero. This CD represents a musical journey following in the footsteps of the travellers of the 1800s and includes the Cuncordu de Orosei as well as the Castelsardo Choir, the Tenores of Bitti and master Luigi Lai. Amongst the most significant places visited whilst on tour with the “Voyage” orchestra i feel obliged to mention Frankfurt, Turin, Venice, Bologna and the Sardinian concerts at the Teatro Civico in Cagliari, but also Nuoro, Alghero, Bosa and Orosei.

Another important participation of the Cuncordu de Orosei was in March 2005, at the Festival de Musica sagrada in Fundao (Portugal), on occasion of the Quadragèsima, together with world famous artists such as Dulce Pontes and Alicia Vieira.

In April 2006, the Cuncordu de Orosei received the sought-after “Premio Ozieri” for “the work carried out and the preservation and the divulgation of the vast repertory of Orosei’s sacred music tradition”. 

Orosei: geographical
 and socio-historical outline

Orosei (formerly also known as Urisé, Urisa or Ursey) is the most flourishing village in the Baronia region. It is situated on the east coast of Sardinia, in a symmetric position to the two most important island highways. The first leads to Bosa along the S.S. 129; the second, together with the S.S.125, connects Cagliari in the south with Palau in the north of the island. Orosei is situated on the banks of the river Cedrino (the Cedrus of the Romans), beingoverlooked to the west by the impressive mount Tuttavista, also known as su Monte ‘e Garteddhi. The latter is a limestone mass that made the fortune of its inhabitants from the 1970s, thanks to the profitable industrial activities linked to the extraction of its precious marble. To the east, near the mouth of the river and not distant from the sea, is a fertile plain, Su Passiale, which has long been decisive for agricultural activities, for which Orosei is still today renowned, in particular for the production of cereals, legumes and fruit plants once again at the expenses of the local population, forced to suffer in silence the vexations of the masters of the moment.

June 6th 1806 marks an important date in the history of Orosei; its inhabitants fervently fought the Saracen pirates who had plundered and sacked the coastal towns of the Mediterranean for almost a millennium. Historians report the act of heroism of its inhabitants (who killed about eighty Moors in battle) and its leader, Tomasu Mojolu, unfortunately scarcely celebrated as a hero by his fellow-citizens.

The 19th century heralded a widening divergence between the peasants and artisans (increasingly poorer) and the local nobility who gained in riches as a consequence of the Edict on Enclosures of 1823, which caused disastrous consequences on an economic and social level.

The mass emigration of approximately 400 youths in the early 1960’s, highlighted the tragic situation of many families in Orosei forced to live in difficult circumstances or to work for a low salary. The economic and social rebirth of Orosei is extremely recent, coinciding with the construction of the first hotels and residential tourist complexes along the coast. The setting up of activities for marble extraction have moreover contributed, over the last few decades, towards determining

The history of the village is linked to the different rules that followed one another throughout the millenniums: Carthaginians, Romans, Byzantines, Vandals, Pisans, Aragonese, Spanish, French, and Piedmonts.

The golden period for the economy of Orosei was linked to the rule of the Pisan maritime Republic, having occupied the Giudicato of Gallura at the beginning of the year 1000 A.D., introducing a number of commercial activities from which Orosei, in view of its situation on the coast, gained considerable advantages.

In 1324, during the siege of Villa di Chiesa (Iglesias) by the troops of the Infante Alfonso of Aragon, the King received homage of submissiveness from many Sardinian castellans, lords and municipalities, although the lord of the Urisa castle, together with his population, refused to submit to the new masters from the west. Indeed, this marked the start of a period of tyranny that would last until 1718 when the Savoias succeeded the old masters, using the island as the starting point for future Italian unity.

Orosei and the Baronia region underwent several periods of transition during occupation by numerous rules, both local and Hispanic, between the first half of the 14th century and the beginning of the 18th century. During this time the transfer of entire feuds took place, once again at the expenses of the local population, forced to suffer in silence the vexations of the masters of the moment.

June 6th 1806 marks an important date in the history of Orosei; its inhabitants fervently fought the Saracen pirates who had plundered and sacked the coastal towns of the Mediterranean for almost a millennium. Historians report the act of heroism of its inhabitants (who killed about eighty Moors in battle) and its leader, Tomasu Mojolu, unfortunately scarcely celebrated as a hero by his fellow-citizens.

The 19th century heralded a widening divergence between the peasants and artisans (increasingly poorer) and the local nobility who gained in riches as a consequence of the Edict on Enclosures of 1823, which caused disastrous consequences on an economic and social level.

The mass emigration of approximately 400 youths in the early 1960’s, highlighted the tragic situation of many families in Orosei forced to live in difficult circumstances or to work for a low salary. The economic and social rebirth of Orosei is extremely recent, coinciding with the construction of the first hotels and residential tourist complexes along the coast. The setting up of activities for marble extraction have moreover contributed, over the last few decades, towards determining the welfare of many village families, producing positive repercussions on both the economy and social issues.

Today, following centuries of prevarication, the village is undergoing a period of cultural and economic rebirth as an avant-garde agricultural, industrial (thanks to the marble and granite extractions) and tourist centre. The town can now rely on numerous commercial activities and varied cultural proposals linked to the rich historical and folk tradition. The festivities, customs and costumes of its inhabitants are all linked to their birthright and the age-old musical tradition has led to Orosei being renowned throughout the world.


The polyvocal chants of oral tradition

From the beginning of the 80s, as an ethnomusicologist, I have been able to witness the rigour, the care, the attention and the dedication M. Corimbi, Giovanni Rosu and F. Sannai (and, later, the younger Paolo Burrai) showed in diffusing the polyvocal (sacred and secular) tradition of their village. A dedication full of love for the valuable heritage handed down by their elders; indeed, the cantors felt the need to treasure this heritage and hand it over to future generations. None of the vocal performers has received a regular musical education but their development within many vocal quartets with whom they have released various recordings selling considerably and being much appreciated also on an international level, is worthy of note. Such development, together with the release of the aforementioned recordings, helped them to reach an important goal to- wards which the “cantors” had been working for years: the enrichment of their repertoire with a number of traditional polyvocal chants typical of liturgical celebrations.

Up until the 1950s, the village of Orosei had been gifted with a particular liturgical vocal “corpus” (“ordinarium missae”) that not even Antonio Nanni, the cantor of sa Corfaria (the Confraternity) had man- aged to master. Luckily, his younger pupils were able to trace some old rare recordings of the group of so called Cantores De Cresia (church choir singers), particularly skilled in performing liturgical chants. Furthermore, Martino Corimbi,Giovanni Rosu and Franco Sannai were fortunate in receiving a considerable amount of information about the chants from Angelo Mula (deceased in 1985), who was not only the most important liturgical singer but also the eclectic musical coordinator of the Confraternity of “Anime”. This confraternity was the keeper of a number of demanding traditional polyvocal chants in Latin, such as Stabat Mater, Miserere, Libera Me, Domine.

Particularly admirable is the modus operandi of the cantors of the Cuncordu, who have always been un- touched by the allure of those modern vocal hybridizations that have become so fashionable since the 1960s and, at least in my opinion, throughout the years have impov- erished, misrepresented and weakened the entire musical tradition. For all these reasons, it is my be- lief that these two CDs represent a true historical document aimed at strengthening the value of the treasure of Sardinian sacred and folk music. Accordingly, they feature highly valuable recordings testifying the musical strength of the tradition which emerges from the culture of every single community, and not from vague, patchy and impersonal arrangements which can only use the ancient people’s knowledge to obtain an easy reward, both financialand image-wise.

Four Corfarios (members of the con- fraternity), one soul, which has accompanied the prayers of an entire population for many centuries. Four cantors, whose musical power raise sacred sounds from the earth up to the sky: “Sing a new chant to the Lord because He has done amazing things”. What is the deep meaning of the religious polyvocal chants of oral tradition performed by the cantors from Orosei? During liturgical and pre-liturgical ceremonies, the choral chant of a prayer is a particular channel of communication aim- ing to transfer the message from the Man of the Earth to the Man of the Universe. Today the “universal” subject is particularly felt in the light of the constant progress made by science and technology. In the age of globalization, technology is ready to break down those space/time barriers that have characterized communication between human beings. Everytime and Everywhere. Point zero is coming closer; the moment when every human being will become an interactive terminal of a planetary network, able at any time to share information with other terminals, human and artificial, of the same virtual community. In the presence of a social and technological scenario that has radically changed in the space of a few decades and is increasingly susceptible to further rapid changes, a spontaneous question arises: what might the importance of the sounds of cantors be today, other than to represent a pleasant exotic musical product, a shrine of ancient traditions destined to disappear.

Over the last decades, the folk musical tradition has been suffocated by the international record industry, concerned rather with imposing new trends, particularly on the younger generations, expressed in the colourful and whimsical way of the star/symbol of the day. However, it is interesting to observe how in Sardinia various groups of cantors, having been tagged for years as “conservative” and being forsaken by the industry, have recently attracted the attention and support of various small private record labels, helping them to achieve a considerable level of fame and commercial success, drawing interest and attention on the whole community. The latter has produced numerous practical effects. First of all, the singers have been obliged to move from their old places of research and study. For some this implied a loosening of their relationship with the Church and transformation from elements of a confraternity lend- ing their skills to liturgical and religious ceremonies to appreciated vocalists, used to being applauded in public performances and standing side by side with stars from the classical and commercial musical world.

In order to better comprehend the complex world of today’s religious polyvocal chants it should be emphasised that in Sardinia, since the 1930s, the male vocal tradition once expressed in Sardinian or Latin languages has been progressively los- ing strength. Indeed, the old repertoire of chants, particularly following World War II, has been completely rewritten and updated into the Italian language. This modernization has resulted in the sacrifice of the accomplished polyvocal chants of oral tradition in favour of a scarcely original new musical repertoire. This choice was also made in the name of an attempt to overcome the past and its sad memories of hunger, illiteracy, poverty and oppression, which had plagued the Sardinian population for several centuries.

In Sardinia, the polyvocal tradition was slowly forsaken and forgotten by the majority of the priests of the local parishes. But if we still have the privilege of appreciating a few lively musical landscapes such as those from Orosei (where the chant tradition was never truly interrupted but merely underwent a restriction of repertoire), this is mainly due to the local Clergy who have enabled the continuation of this tradition at least in para-liturgical ceremonies such as the Rites of the Holy Week. Moreover, we have also to thank those brave believers such as the afore mentioned Antonio Nanni, who, from the 1970s, dedicated himself to the hard work of encouraging young people to learn the polyvocal chants through an intensive practising, and without whom the vocal repertoire would have doubtlessly disappeared the way it did in other communities of the Nuoro area. From the 1980s the cantors started moving the traditional repertoire from the religious sites and ceremonies to concert stages, adapting their chants to the different situations. Initially they performed at var- ious musical festivals or meetings with other representatives of the lo- cal musical circles (in Castelsardo, Cuglieri and Santulussurgiu), sub- sequently going on to play in other Italian regions and in different coun- tries of the world. Sacred and popular chants were orally handed down by the cantors associated with one of the three confraternities (Santa Rughe, Sas Animas, Su Rosariu) formed in Orosei between XVII and XVIII centuries and still fully active, albeit with a noticeable reduction in the number of members.

Many historical documents report the use of the chants in religious ceremonies. The identity of the composers remains unknown al- though it is an acknowledged fact that the sacred chants were originally composed by those having a deep knowledge of classical music or by musicians having access to the instrumental practice in use in the religious sites. It’s likely that these musicians followed a well- established pattern, composing polyphonic melodies taken from the Gregorian

repertoire or other wellknown popular music, keeping in mind the religious and liturgical function of these chants and the musical expertise of the
largely illiterate cantors. The composers were also inspired by the accompaniment with harmonic instruments such as organ and, later, harmonium, the only instruments authorized by the Catholic Church. In time, the transmission of the chants would have followed the principles of the oral communication, being kept alive by the active participation of cantors from different confraternities. The fusion of these components, partly technical musical, partly affective religious, gave birth to the polyphony of the Cantores of Cunordu de Orosei, one of the most interesting and articulate musical expressions of oral tradition in Sardinia.

The polyvocal nature of Cantores

Is made up of the following four voices (from the deepest upwards): su bassu (bass), sa cronta(countervoice), sa voche (voice) and sa mesuvoche (midvoice), representing respectively the tonic, the fifth, the eighth and the tenth of a major chord. The harmonic structure of the sacred- popular compositions is the same that can be traced in the secular polyvocal chants of tenores. The voice of the bassu is the basis of the structure and the point of reference for sa cronta andsa mesuvoche, whereas the latter have mainly to intone notes constituting two of the main harmonic sounds produced by the bass itself.

Sa cronta (from contra = counter, opposite) is the counter- voice and normally intones a fifth (superior) of the bass and a fourth (inferior) of sa voche. Sa cronta takes place between two voices singing one octave apart, assuming the role of controlling voice, partly singing over and louder than the bass, and partly counteracting sa voche, and giving the latter a greater interest and depth of sound. Sa Cronta is required to possess an elevated musical feeling, because an excessive intensity or an improper intonation of the harmony of the bass could make the harmonic structure of the vocal group lose consistency.

Sa mesuvoche is the high- est voice, meant to enrich the superior part of the structure. Its natural points of reference for a correct intonation are sa voche, from which it is separated by a third major, and su bassu, from which the distance is of one tenth.

Sa voche is the voice of the singer who takes the leads of the other three voices, with which it dialogues following responsorial patterns. The choir responds poly- phonically to the incipit and introductory melodic segments of sa voche following a mainly homorhytmic pattern.
The wide repertoire of the cantors of Cuncordu de Orosei features chants in Sardinian (gotzos) and chants in Latin, composed (anonymously) for liturgical and para-liturgical ceremonies. Today these chants are mainly performed during musical events or (when allowed by the parish priest) during the suggestive rites of the Holy Week and or during funerals.

In Orosei features two polyvocal versions of Miserere (psalm 50): for the Procession (processionale) and for the deceased (de sos mortos). Up until not many years ago, the latter were habitually performed at the deceased’s house and during burials. Given their practical function of accompaniment, these chants illustrate a homo-rhythmic modulation which gives full rein to the expressive richness of the vocal variety achieved by the Cuncordu group. Characterized by a marked harmonic tension is the suggestive Libera me Domine, responsorio performed during funerary rites, the theme of lyrics representing a reprise from the introductory Requiem Aeternam and from the sequence Dies Irae. In the liturgical sequence, Stabat Mater focuses on the grief of the Virgin Mary and reflects the existential tragedy of Jesus who, at the height of his pain, saw his mother crying by the Cross. A poignant chant, characterized by a suggestive contrapuntal tension and a constant change of the tonal pattern, achieved through the moving of the tonic by the cantor, in the different melodic segments anticipatory of the choral responses.

On Easter morning, the procession of the statues (the Virgin Mary and the resurrected Christ) ends amidst rifle shots and bell chimes in front of the stairway of the Church of San Giacomo, with the salute called “de s’Incontru” (the Encounter).

For this occasion the Magnificat (from Luke 1 46,55) is chanted, preceded by six verses fromRegina Coeli. Intoned as usual by sa voche, with a performance devoid of regular movements and with a free oscillation of rhythmic values (the so called stolen time), it is homorhythmically counteracted by the choir with the quadrisyllabic Alleluja.


At the beginning of the verse Magnificat anima mea dominum, the chanter shifts the tonality and the choral reply gains in melodic and rhythmic vigour, revealing a more open melodic tissue highlighting the touching and dramatic melodic expressivity of sa mesuvoche.

The Ordinarium chants in Latin stand out for their harmony and variety of timbre, being included for the first time in a recording: Kyrie, Sanctus and Agnus Dei. Kyrie is the introductory chant, characterized by a triple invocation. Sanctus is a chant of praise and thanksgiving, characterized by a triple acclamation to the Lord. During Mass the latter is recited between the Preface and Canon (which includes the moment of the Consacrazione). Agnus Dei is the chant performed in the liturgical functions that preceding Communion. Sanctus and Agnus Dei are sung by the bass. Particular is the dialogue bass-voice in the introductory melodic profile, before the choral reply. Requiem (the “Rest”) is a chanted prayer inserted during the liturgy of the deceased, in the Missa Pro Defunctis (Mass for the Deceased), celebrated for the souls of the deceased.

Te Deum is a thanksgiving chant usually performed by the choir on New Year’s Eve at the end of the celebrations in the parish of San Giacomo (Santu Jacu).

Gotzos are religious chants of praise originally from Spain with lyrics written in the Logudoro dialect. Giovanni Dore maintains that they derive from some kind of medieval poetry and particularly from the Byzantium Kontakia. The most representative gotzos are those intoned during the Processions for Lent and the Holy Week. It should be underlined how the four voice repertoire of the gotzos from Orosei is one of the most appreciated throughout Sardinia; indeed, in the majority of island villages these chants are of ten performed only by one or two voices.

Cuntempla coro induradu and Sendhe mortu chin rigore are the gotzos intoned respectively by the cantors of the confraternities of Santa Croce and Anime, during the Lent Processions de sas Rughes (of the Crosses). Ja’ chi non li cheren dare sepoltura are the gotzos per- formed by corfarios of Santa Rughe on Good Friday. Pretty moving is the performance recorded in 1978 when the unforgettable Antonio Nanni was the cantor and sa mesuvoche was represented by the powerful voice of Antonio Dessena.

E pruite incravadu “I was made flesh and blood for you, poor sinner” This is the refrain of the only piece sung in a monodic form. The ’Tziomo’ (Ecce Homo) is one of the statues borne during the Procession on Tuesday during Easter week, during the celebration of the Mysteries. This song, performed by the brethren of the Santa Croce Confraternity, narrates in rhyming eighths, the sufferance of Jesus Christ during his Passion and his Death.

The gotzos of Santa Maria ’e Mare are performed during the suggestive feast for the Virgin Mary, terminating in the small country church located near the ancient harbour, at the mouth of the Cedrino river.

Su Ninnu is a typical Christmas chant, known throughout the Nuoro area, but in this case performed in the typical Orosei style. The lyrics are a rhymed sestet.

The cantores are aware of the hard work their commitment implies, when they are called upon to spread their musical knowledge during cultural events of international level. And they are also aware that, in spite of the deserved success they have achieved to date, many other musical goals remain to be scored, requiring several more years of dedication and hard research work. For this reason their vocal training has become increasingly frequent and demanding (an average of 2- 3 nights every week), and surely much more intense compared to that of their predecessors. I am personally persuaded that, also thanks to the support provided by Franco Madau’s record company “Frorias”, the cantores de Su Cuncordu will extend knowledge of their vocal achievements to a wide, heterogeneous and cosmopolitan audience, thus fully exploiting the teachings of the elders (sos mannos) of their community.

THE CHANTS


MISERERE PROCESSIONALE

Sung by 4 voices this is still today the most characteristic and important song of the procession which takes place on Good Friday. It is sung by the choir at predetermined points during the procession. The procession is led by the mandatarie of San Giacomo and the three Ora- tories; followed by the brothers of the Holy Cross who support a heavy wooden cross, those of the Holy Spirit bring Su Brossolu (literally the cradle) bedecked in flowers used to carry the dead Christ and lastly the brothers of the Rosary who carry the mourning Mary, the priest, the choir and finally the faithful.

Take pity on me, o God, According to the multitude

Of your mercies

Forgive my wrongdoings

Purify me of my unjustness And cleanse me from my sins... I have sinned against you,

And have done evil before you

So that you may do justice

in your speeches

And win when you judge...

Remove your face from my sins And erase all my injustice...
Deliver me the joy of your salvation

And strengthen me with your spirit... Oh Lord, you shall open my lips And my mouth shall sing your praises.

SU NINNU

This composition of six line verses is sung on Christmas night; at times it is performed privately and at times on the occasion of a baptism. This song is common to other parts of Sardinian although there are some local variations to the content of the six verses and its musical modulation.

Celestial treasure,

of eternal joy;

Sleep, life and heart, rest and lull.

This child,
 just born,

has no cloak
 nor jerkin,

When it is cold,

he doesn’t shiver. Sleep, life and heart, rest and lull.

Celestial treasure,

of eternal joy;

Sleep, life and heart, rest and lull.

MAGNIFICAT DE S’INCONTRU

These are the two joyous songs which the choir of the Santa Croce (Holy Cross) Confraternity sing when the resurrected Christ encounters his mother Mary (s’Incontru). This procession closes celebrations characterising the rites of Holy Week. On Easter Sunday the Santa Croce Confraternity and the Rosary meet in procession


in the square outside the parish church. They bear an effigy of the risen Christ in their arms, others bear one of Mary. United in the central square at the foot of the steps leading to San Giacomo, three bows are made in front of each of the statues, leading to the choir exploding into joyous song, with the faithful joining in.

Queen of the heavens, rejoice, hallelujah;

You who deserved to be his mother, hallelujah;

Arose again as he said, hallelujah; Pray to God for us, hallelujah.
My soul praises the Lord;

And my spirit has rejoiced

God, my saviour,

Since I respected the humility of his maid...

And his mercy endures from generation to

Generation for those who fear him... Glory to the Father, The Son,
And the Holy Spirit,

As it was in the beginning,

Is now and shall be for ever in the ages of ages. Amen.

MISERERE DE SOS MORTOS

This is the second version of Miser- ere which has been passed down with its original musical characteristics. In Orosei, the deceased are led to the church and the burial ground by the



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three confraternities that are still active in the village today. On arrival of the brethren in the house of the deceased, the verses of Miserere are intoned.

Take pity on me, o God, According to the multitude Of your mercies

Forgive my wrongdoings

Purify me of my unjustness

And cleanse me from my sins...

I have sinned against you,

And have done evil before you

So that you may do justice in your speeches

And win when you judge...

Remove your face from my sins And erase all my injustice...

Deliver me the joy of your salvation And strengthen me with your spirit... Oh Lord, you shall open my lips And my mouth shall sing your praises.

SENDHE MORTU CHIN RIGORE

These ’gotzos’ are performed during the Maundy Thursday procession by the Confraternity of Souls. The text is widely known in Sardinia and dates back to the first half of the XVII century.

Having died violently My heart and soul Call me not Maria rather mother of pain.

Call me the afflicted

Call me the saddened Pierced by pains

And consumed by sorrows

I see the most precious thing In the hands of traitors

Call me not Maria rather mother of pain.
Having died violently My heart and soul Call me not Maria rather mother of pain.SANCTUS

In Western Christianity , the Sanctus is sung (or said) at the heart of the eucharistic prayer, the prayer delivered whilst consecrating the bread and wine. In this setting, the Sanctus immediately follows the preface of the Eucharistic prayer. The preface, which varies according to the season, usually terminates in praise of the worshippers who join the praise of angels. A similar representation may be found in Revelation 4:8. The following Benedictus is also usually sung. The text is from Matthew 21.9

Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts. Heaven and earth are full of your glory. Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.

GOTZOS DE

SANTA MARIA ‘E MARE

A beautiful piece composed in the second half of the XVIII century, attributed to a local poet, it extols the virtues of the Virgin of Monserrat (Santa Maria ‘e Mare), venerated in



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Orosei for the last six centuries in a small fourteenth century church dedicated to her near the Cedrino river. Every year, on the last Sun- day in May, twenty or so brightly decorated boats accompany the procession leading the statue of the Madonna downriver to her church where mass is said and these gotzos are sung in her honour.

Consecrated Temple of God Guiding light for us mortals Pray for us, Maria,
Queen of Monserrato

High on the sacred mountain

Do you recall our Lady

Where the afflicted and the pained lies

You console him with your pity Guiding to the other throne the shameful sinner.
For saddened sailors in a tempestuous sea

You represent their port and safety You guide all men Those in agony

Are made well again. Sing to all Kingdoms Sing to all Hierarchies Pray for us, Maria, Queen of Monserrat

Consecrated Temple of God Guiding light for us mortals Pray for us, Maria,
Queen of Monserrato

CUNTEMPLA CORO INDURADU



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A verse of this song and its relative choral refrains is sung by the choir in each of the fourteen stations of the cross in the village. Every Friday in lent the three brothers meet in the parish church of San Giacomo to recall Passion Week and the death of Jesus. Sas Rughes was celebrated three times a week separately in each of the three Ora- tories up until the 1970s.

Having been crucified on the Cross The Son of God calls.
Answer, my people, why have you crucified me?

What did I do to you,

What evil did you see in me

To fill me with wounds

Until you have seen me undone? Oh, cruel and ungrateful people, Who condemned me to die. Answer, my people, why have you crucified me?

The devout brotherhood

Asks for your forgiveness,

I have faith in you, good Lord, To reach heaven
Giving us light and hope

In this evil world.

Answer, my people, why have you crucified me?

REQUIEM

The Requiem (from the Latin requirest) or Requiem Mass, also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican High Church and certain Lutheran Churches in the United States. There is also a requiem, with a wholly different ritual form and texts, observed in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches. The common theme of requiems is prayer for the salvation of the soul(s) of the departed, being used both at services immediately preceding a burial, and on occasions of more general remembrance.

Eternal rest grant unto them, O Lord,
and let perpetual light shine upon them.

A hymn becometh thee, O God, in Zion,

and unto thee a vow shall be repaid in Jerusalem.

Hear my prayer;

unto thee all flesh shall come. Lord, have mercy.

Christ have mercy;

Lord have mercy

Eternal rest grant unto them, O Lord,
and let perpetual light shine upon them.

TE DEUM



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The Te Deum is an ancient Christian hymn (dating back to the IV century) although its origin is uncertain: some maintain that it dates back to the times of the Saints Ambrose and Augustin, being linked to Thanks- giving ceremonies; traditionally in Orosei it is intoned on the eve of December 31st in thanks for the year past.

Te Deum laudàmus: te Dóminum confitémur.
Te aetérnum Patrem omnis terra venerátur.

Tibi omnes ángeli, tibi Caeli et uni- vérsae potestátes,

Tibi Chérubim et Séraphim inces- sábili voce proclámant. Sanctus,Sanctus, Sanctus Dóminus Deus Sábaoth.

Miserére nostri, Dómine, miserére nostri.Fiat misericórdia tua, Dómine, super nos, quemádmodum sperávimus in Te.

In Te, Dómine, sperávi: non confúndar in aetérnum.

KYRIE

Kyrie is the vocative case of the Greek word (kyrios - lord) meaning O Lord; it is the common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called Kyrie eleison, the Greek for Lord have mercy.

Lord, have mercy. Christ have mercy; Lord have mercy Hosanna in the highest.

LIBERA ME, DOMINE

This song is enacted during the elevation in the morning. Mass celebrating the souls of the dead (ottavariu or nefressariu) in the Oratory of the Holy Cross and the Oratory of Holy Spirit, in the first ten days of November. This closes the religious cycle which begins with the Oratory of the Rosary.

Free me, oh Lord, from eternal death

On that terrible day,

When the heavens and the earth shall move,

When you shall come

To judge the generations amid the fames.

I tremble and am afraid

Of when judgment will come

And the fury shall arrive,

When the heavens and the earth shall move.
That day, the day of fury,

Great day of misery and bitter calamity,
When you shall come

To judge the generations amid the

fames.

Give them eternal rest, Lord,

And may perpetual light glow for them.

Free me, Lord, from eternal death On that terrible day
When the heavens and the earth shall move,




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When you shall come

To judge generations amidst the flame

GOTZOS DE SOS TZIOMOS

“I was made flesh and blood for you, poor sinner” This is the refrain of the only piece sung in a monodic form. The ’Tziomo’ (Ecce Homo)

is one of the statues borne during the Procession on Tuesday during Easter week, during the celebration of the Mysteries. This song, per- formed by the brethren of the Santa CroceConfraternity, narrates in rhyming eighths, the sufferance of Jesus Christ during his Passion and his Death.

Why are you sad

in the garden?

To comfort you,

the angel descended bringing you

a chalice of pain; forebearer of death proclaimed.

For you poor sinner

I was made flesh and blood

Why in agony With such cruelty, the candid flower is bloodied so? Forming rivers

that run over the land; a bloody war
has been proposed.

For you poor sinner

I was made flesh and blood

For you poor sinner

I lie in agony;

with my blood forming floods of sweat; mortal pain,

sheer agony; my body ravished.

For you poor sinner

I was made flesh and blood

Why have you been captured

by scribes and Pharisees?

Why do the Jews seek your death? They swear you will die
a cruel death.

The entire tribunal

condemns you.

For you poor sinner

I was made flesh and blood



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My mother followed me with foreboding.
The stones,

all shone with blood. On hearing

the crowds jeering, unbearable pain seared her soul.

For you poor sinner

I was made flesh and blood

For you poor sinner

my limbs bear wounds;

my arms are open

with love.

In your pain, try

to repent

and serve with all your heart he who has loved you .

For you poor sinner I was crucified.



JA’ CHI NO LI CHEREN DARE



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These songs focus on the laments of Mary in seeking assistance for the burial of her son. The Good Friday songs are performed through- out the procession. These songs with musical variations take place in various localities throughout the Island of Sardinia.

Oh, my beloved son,

Killed with such cruelty,

Seven swords of pain

pierced my heart.

While I saw crucified

The good of my soul

With pain and agony

Of sufferings as large as a sea Unable to console

Such a beloved son.
Seven swords of pain pierced my heart.GOTZOS DE SU NEFRESSARIU

This is the first verse of the gotzos sung during afternoon mass to pray for the souls of the dead in Purga- tory held in the ottavario of the Holy Cross and the Holy Spirit. With musical variations this also exists in other parts of Sardinia.

Highest Creator, Help of the souls, Mercy, Lord, for the souls of Purgatory.
Look upon them with clemency, Those that burn in the flame,

And with complete indulgence

For children, fathers and mothers, Christ, you who love them so, aid them now.
Mercy, lord, for the souls of Purgatory.

Brothers devoted to the holy brotherhood,

We pray for the souls to God and Mary

Calling with a pious voice in this holy oratorio.

Mercy, Lord, for the souls of Purga- tory.

STABAT MATER

This in enacted during the adoration of the Cross and on Good Friday during the procession accompany- ing the dead Christ.

The grieving Mother

was near the cross

in tears while the Son hung there. When the body dies,
Give the soul

to the glory of Heaven. Amen

DIES IRAE

Dies Irae (“Day of Wrath”) is a famous thirteenth century Latin hymn thought to be written by Thomas of Celano. It is often judged to be the best medieval Latin poem, differing from classical Latin by its accentual (non-quantitative) stress and rhymed lines. The meter is trochaic. The poem describes the day of judgment the last trumpet summon- ing souls before



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the throne of God, Where the saved will be delivered and the unsaved cast into eternal flames. The hymn was used as a sequence in the Roman Catholic Requiem Mass until the 1970 revision of the Roman Missal.

Day of wrath and terror looming! Heaven and earth to ash consuming,
David’s word and Sibyl’s truth foredooming!

What horror must invade the mind, when the approaching judge shall find,
and sift the deeds of all mankind. The trumpet casts a wondrous sound,

through the tombs of all around, making them the throne surround.

The written book shall be brought forth,
in which is contained all

from which the world is to be judged.

What am I, wretched one, to say, What protector implore,
when a just person will scarcely be confident?

Remember, gracious Jesus,

that I am the cause of your journey; do not let me be lost on that day. Just judge of vengeance,
grant the gift of forgiveness,

before the day of reckoning’.

You who forgave Mary,

and heard the plea of the thief

have given hope to me also.

Grant me a place among the sheep, and separate me from the goats, placing me at your right hand.
Now I kneel, with heart submission! See, like ashes my contrition!

Help me in my last condition! Tearful that day,

on which will rise from ashes

guilty man for judgement.

So have mercy,

O God, on this man. Compassionate Lord Jesus,

grant them rest. Amen.



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AGNUS DEI

Agnus Dei is a Latin term mean-

ing Lamb of God, originally used to refer to Jesus Christ in his role of the perfect sacrificial offering that atones for the sins of man in Christian theology , harkening back to ancient Jewish Temple sacrifices. See Lamb of God for an explanation of this. Agnus Dei is used to refer to several related issues.

Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, grant us peace.

DISCOGRAFIA DEI CANTI DI TRADIZIONE ORALE DI OROSEI

Canti della tradizione di Orosei, Coro della confraternita di Santa Rughe, Archivio etnomusicologico n.1, a cura di Martino Corimbi, TKR Sassari, 1990.

Sardaigne. Polyphonies de la Semaine Sainte, a cura di Bernard Lortat-Jacob, compact disc, Paris, 1992.

Sardegna, confraternite delle voci: Orosei, a cura di Pietro Sassu e Renato Morelli, Nota, Udine, 1994, compact disc con accluso libretto informativo scritto da Martino Corimbi con la consulenza di Giuseppe Mercurio e la presentazione di Pietro Sassu.

A su primu ispuntare Tenore de Orosei, compact-disc e musicassetta a cura di Martino Corimbi con introduzione di Andrea Deplano C.N.I Roma 1996.

Voyage en Sardaigne, Robi Droli, Roma 1997;

Miserere e Amore profundhu,

Voches de Sardinna, Winter & Winter, 1998, cofanetto contenente due compact disc, con accluso un libretto di oltre cento pagine (tradotto in sette lingue: sardo, inglese, tedesco, italiano, francese, spagnolo e giapponese) a cura di Martino Corimbi, con introduzione di Paolo Mercurio.

Colla Voche, Cuncordu e Tenore de Orosei in collaborazione con il violoncellista olandese Ernst Reijseger e del percussionista scozzese Alan “Gunga” Purves, Winter & Winter, Monaco, 1999.



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Talam: viaggio nella geografia dei suoni, DVD sulle tradizioni musicali della Sardegna con la regia di Roberto Minini-Mèrot TSI Televisione Svizzera Myro Film Milano - 1999

Canti Religiosi Vol. 2 raccolta di Canti religiosi della Sardegna con introduzione a cura di Martino Corimbi ed. Frorias Decimomannu 2005.

Cantos de amore Tenore “Vissente Gallos” di Orosei compact-disc con introduzione, libretto esplicativo e testi a cura di Martino Corimbi ed. Frorias Decimomannu 2006.

Canti Religiosi Vol. 3 raccolta di Canti religiosi della Sardegna con introduzione a cura di Martino Corimbi. ed. Frorias Decimomannu 2006.

Requiem: Cuncordu de Orosei, ed. Frorias Decimomannu 2007, audiolibro di 60 pagine in italiano e inglese a cura di Martino Corimbi, contenente 2 CD con 22 canti della tradizione di Orosei, compresi i brani della Messa dei Defunti mai pubblicati.

The Heart of Sound, BMFI Salisburgo 2013, docu-film in DVD che racconta l’incontro fra la musica colta, rappresentata dal Maestro Vittorio Ghielmi e la sua orchestra “Il Suonar Parlante”, e le voci del Cuncordu de Orosei.

Animas, Cronta Record, Sassari 2016, una raccolta in due CD della tradizione sacra e a tenore di Orosei, a cura di Martino Corimbi con introduzione di Andrea Deplano e Paolo Mercurio.



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